If this disease catches up with you, visit your doctor and read this article.
Worms are called parasitic worms that live from other animals and plants, feed and reproduce in living organisms. According to statistics, every third inhabitant of the planet has these parasites. Scientists claim that there is no adult who has not had worms in his life. Think about how to get rid of worms, what species exist, how to detect and prevent them. Note that worms (ascariasis, enterobiosis) are a common problem, especially in childhood, and you should not panic.
Types of worms in humans
Helminths - the scientific name for worms - have their own subspecies. The most common helminths are pinworms, roundworms. Let's look at them.
The pinworms are called helminths, which affect the human intestine. They are the most famous and widespread species. The reproduction of these helminths leads to the development of the disease - enterobiosis. Preschoolers and students are most susceptible to pinworm infection.
General signs of helminths in the body:
- itching sensation in the anus;
- abdominal cramps, usually mild;
- decreased appetite;
- stool disorders;
- insomnia and weakness;
- allergic reactions that do not disappear after the use of antiallergic drugs;
- unreasonable cough.
Method of infection: contact and household route. Infection occurs when eggs are ingested with food. Self-infection is extremely important - when combing an itchy anus, the eggs of the spikes fall under the nails and then swallow. Adults can also be infected by children later.
Ascariasis is a family of large parasitic roundworms. The worm lives from 10 to 24 months, after which, partially decomposed, it comes out with feces. The organs of the gastrointestinal tract that cause ascariasis are most commonly affected. The preferred habitat for adults is the small intestine.
Giardiasis - A disease caused by giardia, a parasite in the small intestine of humans and some animals. Giardia exists in two forms: motile (vegetative) and immobile (cyst form). The movable shape of the lamblia has 4 pairs of whips and a suction disk with which it attaches to the lining of the small intestine. It lives in the human body in the duodenum (small intestine).
Causes of worms in humans
The main factors of helminthiasis infection are:
- Failure to follow basic hygiene rules, especially hand washing.
- Bad habits. These include biting nails, licking fingers, holding various objects (pens, pencils) in the mouth.
- Insufficient care for pets, especially pets, as they can be a carrier of infection. After the street, cats and dogs must wipe their paws, take a bath in time, take them for an examination and choose the right food.
- Drinking raw, unfiltered water from an unreliable source.
- Vegetables, fruits and vegetables, unprocessed before meals;
- Poorly processed meat and fish products.
- Close contact with an infected person.
- Sandstones - worms live in them. Playground sandpits should be protected from cats and dogs.
Why are worms dangerous?
Thanks to modern medicine it is possible to detect a disease in time, to get rid of it, therefore serious consequences are quite rare. Worms can cause the following phenomena:
- intestinal obstruction;
- allergic rash;
- predisposition to poisoning;
- the development of anemia;
- deterioration of health;
- weight loss;
- reducing the percentage of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice.
Helminth infestation can provoke weight loss, pale shadow, itching in the anal canal. Complications depend on the type of parasite and the degree of infection. The appearance of helminths in children and during pregnancy is especially dangerous.
How to find out if there are worms
It is important to detect helminth infestation as early as possible, which significantly increases the effectiveness of treatment and prevents the development of complications.
Basic diagnostic methods:
- stool analysis for intestinal parasites (ascariasis);
- scraping analysis for pinworm eggs (enterobiosis);
- blood test to determine specific antibodies against worms (detection of immunoglobulins - ELISA) - intestinal and tissue parasites. The most revealing study.
Re-analysis should be performed no earlier than 14 days after anthelmintic treatment. The patient is usually prescribed a combination of several tests to identify the parasite. The recovery criterion is considered to be a negative ELISA result and several negative results from the study of the biological environment where the worms were found.
Pay attention! Requirements for preparation of biomaterial (faeces for intestinal parasites):
- Prepare a sterile container. Now they have created specialized containers that are equipped with a convenient spoon. You can buy it at any drugstore;
- Do not use a laxative;
- Faeces are collected in the morning before being tested;
- It is impossible to allow urine to enter the stool, so it is imperative to urinate before the process.
- It is necessary to collect the material from different parts of the last portion.
- Put in a prepared container around a tablespoon of feces (10-15 g).
- Deliver the container to the laboratory as soon as possible - the so-called "warm stools".
Scraping for enterobiosisperformed in the morning, in the child's bed, before morning emptying and hygienic procedures. A transparent narrow strip is used, which is applied with a sticky side on the perianal folds and then, with the same side with the biomaterial, glued on a clean, dry slide. Do not use matte or colored sticky seams.
Methods for dealing with worms
An infectious disease specialist or parasitologist is involved in the treatment of parasitic infestations. But you should not immediately go to a doctor with a narrow specialization: it is better to contact a pediatrician or therapist. He will order a series of tests and, if necessary, refer you to a parasitologist or gastroenterologist.
If worms are found in a child, it is imperative that anthelmintic therapy be given to all family members.
When worms are found, the doctor prescribes antiparasitic drugs aimed at fighting a specific type of worm. Modern drugs effectively fight worms at every stage of the life cycle: adults, larvae and eggs. In most cases (eg ascariasis) a single dose of pills is sufficient, but sometimes it is required to undergo a course of medication - treatment is developed by a specialist.
It is unacceptable to violate the treatment tactics prescribed by the doctor - this can lead to the fact that the eggs of worms remain in the body, which in the future will lead to re-invasion.
What pills can be used
Modern medicines are presented in the form of tablets or suspensions for children.
The method of administration for all drugs is different. It is important to read the instructions carefully and follow them clearly. Another point is the contraindications. Contraindications are based on various liver diseases, pregnancy and lactation. Ideally, discuss this with your doctor.
The drugs are selected by the attending physician depending on the type of worms, the characteristics of the organism, the stage of infection, the age of the patient. There are not always enough anthelmintics to drive away the worms. In some cases, complex treatment is prescribed.
After its vital activity, the worm causes damage to our body. Therefore, it is important not only to conduct anthelmintic therapy, but also it is necessary to cleanse the body of toxins formed during the death of worms.
The killed helminth releases decomposition products, which are one of the most powerful intestinal poisons. Allergic reactions may occur, the formation and leakage of bile is impaired, the peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract suffers, which manifests itself in the form of "lazy gut" or, conversely, its excessive activity - diarrhea - "flowing intestines". The body's resistance to viruses and bacteria decreases, latent chronic infections are activated.
Along with antiparasitic drugs can be prescribed drugs that improve the condition of the gastrointestinal tract, vitamins to eliminate vitamin deficiency, antihistamines (in case of an allergic reaction), hepatoprotectors, choleretics and sorbents.
Currently in the arsenal of pharmacies you can buy phyto complexes that combine all these effects.
Let's see what medicinal plants will help us get rid of helminths.
Treatment with folk remedies
Pumpkin seeds and honey
Pumpkin seeds have long been known in folk medicine, their pharmacological properties have been confirmed experimentally and clinically. The seeds are used against various tapeworms (cattle, pork and dwarf tapeworms, broadworms) and pinworms.
The main pharmacologically active substance that determines the anthelmintic effect of pumpkin seeds is the amino compound cucurbitine (3-amino-3-carboxypyrrolidine), whose content in the seeds reaches 0, 1-0, 3%, depending on the variety of pumpkin.
- To combat worms take 300, 0 peeled seeds in small portions on an empty stomach for 1 hour (you can grind in a mortar, always with a green shell and mix with 50-100, 0 honey).
- After 3 hours is given a laxative, after 0, 5 hours is given an enema.
- Children 3-4 years are given 75, 0 seeds;
- At 5-7 years - 100, 0;
- At 8-10 years - 150, 0;
- At 10-15 years - 200, 0-250, 0.
Garlic, the beneficial properties of which are known around the world, is most widespread in various countries. Garlic (Allium sativum L. ) contains phytoncides, the main of which are allicin, geraniol, rutin, quercetin. Garlic has a tonic effect, stimulates immunity, has anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral and fungicidal action, enhances the motor and secretory activity of the gastrointestinal tract, inhibits fermentation and putrefaction in the intestine.
Useful properties of yarrow are expressed in choleretic action, increased production of gastric juice, improved appetite. Due to its antispasmodic effect, the herb yarrow is used to reduce the pain caused by intestinal cramps.
Turmeric is used in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine as a remedy for many ailments, including colds, stomach ulcers, liver diseases and to heal skin wounds. Turmeric is rich in essential oils, the constituent components of which are borneol, known for its powerful antiseptic effect, as well as phellandrene, zingiber, curcumin and others. It also contains vitamins in high concentrations (vitamin -% of the daily value): B6 - 90%; C - 28%; E - 20, 7%; B1 - 10%. The safe daily dose of turmeric is 1 teaspoon. Daily intake of turmeric improves digestion, stimulates the gallbladder (turmeric should not be used in cholelithiasis, as the spice leads to increased bile flow) and lowers blood cholesterol levels.
In modern medicine, the fruits of cumin are used to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, intestinal atony, flatulence. The plant is used for spasms of the bile ducts. Caraway fruits are part of the carminative, stomach, appetizing and other collections.
- The infusion is prepared in the amount of 2-3 teaspoons of cumin in a glass of boiling water.
- Insist 45 minutes and take 2-3 tablespoons (children 1 teaspoon). 5-6 times a day before meals.
Prevention of helminthiasis
In order not to catch a parasite for yourself, it is imperative to follow the rules of hygiene: modern change of linen, regular showering and hand washing. It is even better to spray household items with antiseptic.
It is important to eat the right food and to handle it well. Be especially careful with fish and meat. During gutting, the fish should be carefully inspected for eggs and worms and a separate board for raw fish and meat should be used. In spring and summer, it is important to thoroughly wash vegetables and fruits from the garden.
You should also perform regular spring cleaning. Drink only proven water and treat your pets carefully and correctly. The main guardian - immunity - also needs help and care.
If there are animals in the house, then all family members should carry out prevention against worms, be sure to include the most beloved pet.